Cartilage has limited capability for regeneration; therefore cartilage injuries tend to lead to gradual degradation and eventually osteoarthritis (OA). The main components of cartilage are differentiated chondrocytes and chondroprogenitor cells (CPCs) embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM) composed predominantly of type II collagen and glycosaminoglycans. Many current therapies for cartilage repair focus on cellular delivery to stimulate the production of new functional ECM in situ. In this chapter, we describe several potential cell sources for cartilage regeneration including autologous adult chondrocytes, chondroprogenitor cells (CPCs), mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived CPCs or hiChondrocytes, and allogenic juvenile chondrocytes. The latest protocols for the stepwise differentiation of hiPSCs toward the chondrogenic lineage are outlined and compared. We also compare and discuss the relative advantages of juvenile chondrocytes and hiChondrocytes, with their ability to synthesize superior cartilage matrix and resistance to proinflammatory cues, over other cell sources. Various novel biomaterial-based approaches to mimic the cartilage tissue and to induce chondrogenic differentiation are also discussed. In summary, this chapter reviews the latest concepts related to hiPSCs-derived CPCs/hiChondrocytes, and their applications in cartilage regeneration for the treatment of OA.

Chapter 7 - Induced pluripotent stem cells–derived chondrocyte progenitors

Michela Bruschi;
In corso di stampa

Abstract

Cartilage has limited capability for regeneration; therefore cartilage injuries tend to lead to gradual degradation and eventually osteoarthritis (OA). The main components of cartilage are differentiated chondrocytes and chondroprogenitor cells (CPCs) embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM) composed predominantly of type II collagen and glycosaminoglycans. Many current therapies for cartilage repair focus on cellular delivery to stimulate the production of new functional ECM in situ. In this chapter, we describe several potential cell sources for cartilage regeneration including autologous adult chondrocytes, chondroprogenitor cells (CPCs), mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived CPCs or hiChondrocytes, and allogenic juvenile chondrocytes. The latest protocols for the stepwise differentiation of hiPSCs toward the chondrogenic lineage are outlined and compared. We also compare and discuss the relative advantages of juvenile chondrocytes and hiChondrocytes, with their ability to synthesize superior cartilage matrix and resistance to proinflammatory cues, over other cell sources. Various novel biomaterial-based approaches to mimic the cartilage tissue and to induce chondrogenic differentiation are also discussed. In summary, this chapter reviews the latest concepts related to hiPSCs-derived CPCs/hiChondrocytes, and their applications in cartilage regeneration for the treatment of OA.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2692430
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