Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)-inhibited astrocytes respond to the cocktail lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma with an immediate formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and a delayed lethal response. Low concentrations of arachidonic acid (ARA; i.e., <0.1 microM) cause tyrosine kinase-dependent inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity, thereby suppressing formation of ONOO(-) and the ensuing lethal response. ARA promoted its effects only when given to the cultures just prior to, or in parallel with, the proinflammatory mixture. High concentrations of ARA, i.e., >3 microM, promoted cytoprotection when applied to the cultures up to 50 min after the formation of endogenous ONOO(-) had been completed or up to 30 min after addition of exogenous ONOO(-). The mechanism(s) involved in these responses was, however, independent of tyrosine kinase activation and was in fact mediated by ARA metabolites of the lipoxygenase pathway. These results are consistent with a scenario in which astrocytes respond to low or high amounts of ARA with the triggering of different pathways involved in the inflammatory response. Early nNOS inhibition mediated by very low levels of ARA is indeed critical for nuclear factor-kappaB activation, which is otherwise effectively inhibited by constitutive nitric oxide, and for preventing early formation of ONOO(-). Greater ARA concentrations promote survival in astrocytes committed to death by ONOO(-), a species extensively released under inflammatory conditions, via a mechanism dependent on lipoxygenase metabolism and inhibition of downstream events leading to cell demise.

Arachidonic acid inhibits neuronal nitric oxide synthase elicited by proinflammatory stimuli and promotes astrocyte survival with both exogenous and endogenous peroxynitrite via different mechanisms.

PALOMBA, LETIZIA;CANTONI, ORAZIO
2010-01-01

Abstract

Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)-inhibited astrocytes respond to the cocktail lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma with an immediate formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and a delayed lethal response. Low concentrations of arachidonic acid (ARA; i.e., <0.1 microM) cause tyrosine kinase-dependent inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity, thereby suppressing formation of ONOO(-) and the ensuing lethal response. ARA promoted its effects only when given to the cultures just prior to, or in parallel with, the proinflammatory mixture. High concentrations of ARA, i.e., >3 microM, promoted cytoprotection when applied to the cultures up to 50 min after the formation of endogenous ONOO(-) had been completed or up to 30 min after addition of exogenous ONOO(-). The mechanism(s) involved in these responses was, however, independent of tyrosine kinase activation and was in fact mediated by ARA metabolites of the lipoxygenase pathway. These results are consistent with a scenario in which astrocytes respond to low or high amounts of ARA with the triggering of different pathways involved in the inflammatory response. Early nNOS inhibition mediated by very low levels of ARA is indeed critical for nuclear factor-kappaB activation, which is otherwise effectively inhibited by constitutive nitric oxide, and for preventing early formation of ONOO(-). Greater ARA concentrations promote survival in astrocytes committed to death by ONOO(-), a species extensively released under inflammatory conditions, via a mechanism dependent on lipoxygenase metabolism and inhibition of downstream events leading to cell demise.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2303330
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