In vitro toxicity of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) to pollen, the male haploid generation of higher plants, was studied. BPA caused significant inhibition of both tube emergence and elongation of kiwifruit pollen in a dose-dependent manner, beginning at 10 mgÆl)1; morphological changes to tubes were also detected. Despite strong inhibition of pollen tube production and growth, a large percentage of treated cells remained viable. Immunoblotting experiments indicated that levels of BiP and 14-3-3, which are proteins involved in stress response, substantially increased in BPA-treated pollen compared to controls. The increases were dosedependent in the range 10–50 mgÆl)1 BPA, i.e. even when germination ability was completely blocked. Steroid hormones (17 b-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone) were detected in kiwifruit pollen, and their levels increased during germination in basal medium. In a BPA treatment of 30 mgÆl)1, larger increases in both estrogen and testosterone concentrations were detected, in particular, a six-fold increase of 17 b-estradiol over control concentration (30 min). The increased hormone levels were maintained for at least the 90 min incubation. Increasing concentrations of exogenous testosterone and 17 b-estradiol increasingly inhibited pollen tube emergence and elongation. Current data for BPA-exposed kiwifruit pollen suggest a toxicity mechanism that is at least in part based on a dramatic imbalance of steroid hormone production during tube organisation, emergence and elongation. It may be concluded that BPA, a widespread environmental contaminant, can cause serious adverse effects to essential pollen functions. On a broader scale, this chemical poses a potential risk to the reproductive success of higher plants.

The environmental endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A, affects germination, elicits stress response and alters steroid hormone production in kiwifruit pollen

SCOCCIANTI, VALERIA
2011-01-01

Abstract

In vitro toxicity of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) to pollen, the male haploid generation of higher plants, was studied. BPA caused significant inhibition of both tube emergence and elongation of kiwifruit pollen in a dose-dependent manner, beginning at 10 mgÆl)1; morphological changes to tubes were also detected. Despite strong inhibition of pollen tube production and growth, a large percentage of treated cells remained viable. Immunoblotting experiments indicated that levels of BiP and 14-3-3, which are proteins involved in stress response, substantially increased in BPA-treated pollen compared to controls. The increases were dosedependent in the range 10–50 mgÆl)1 BPA, i.e. even when germination ability was completely blocked. Steroid hormones (17 b-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone) were detected in kiwifruit pollen, and their levels increased during germination in basal medium. In a BPA treatment of 30 mgÆl)1, larger increases in both estrogen and testosterone concentrations were detected, in particular, a six-fold increase of 17 b-estradiol over control concentration (30 min). The increased hormone levels were maintained for at least the 90 min incubation. Increasing concentrations of exogenous testosterone and 17 b-estradiol increasingly inhibited pollen tube emergence and elongation. Current data for BPA-exposed kiwifruit pollen suggest a toxicity mechanism that is at least in part based on a dramatic imbalance of steroid hormone production during tube organisation, emergence and elongation. It may be concluded that BPA, a widespread environmental contaminant, can cause serious adverse effects to essential pollen functions. On a broader scale, this chemical poses a potential risk to the reproductive success of higher plants.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2502587
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