Background and Purpose-Prophylactic administration of simvastatin has been shown to protect against brain damage and its long-lasting behavioral consequences in neonatal rats. To establish the drug treatment window, we evaluated the effectiveness of simvastatin administered at different intervals before and after stroke. Furthermore, we determined whether simvastatin affected endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or inflammatory cytokines in brain tissue or cholesterol levels in serum. Methods-On postnatal day 7, male rats were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The experiment included sham-operated controls and HI animals receiving daily saline or activated simvastatin (20 mg/kg) injections from postnatal day 1 to day 7 (HI-simvastatin 1-7 group), from postnatal day 4 to day 11 (HI-simvastatin 4-11 group), or from postnatal day 7 to day 14 (HI-simvastatin 7-14 group). The neuroprotective effect of simvastatin was evaluated at adulthood by means of behavioral and histological analyses. Cytokines and eNOS expression were assessed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Results-Animals in both the HI-simvastatin 1-7 and HI-simvastatin 4-11 groups performed better than HI rats in either the T-maze or the circular water maze and showed significantly attenuated brain damage. Expression of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA in cortex was significantly increased in HI but not in HI-simvastatin 1-7 animals. In the same brain area, simvastatin treatment did not affect the increase of eNOS expression observed after HI. Conclusions-These findings indicate that prophylactic but not delayed administration of simvastatin improves functional outcome in neonatal rat stroke. The reduced induction of cytokines suggests that the neuroprotective effect of simvastatin may be related to a dampening of the inflammatory response.

Prophylactic but not delayed administration of simvastatin protects against long-lasting cognitive and morphological consequences of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, reduces interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA induction, and does not affect endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression

BALDUINI, WALTER;CARLONI, SILVIA;CIMINO, MAURO
2003-01-01

Abstract

Background and Purpose-Prophylactic administration of simvastatin has been shown to protect against brain damage and its long-lasting behavioral consequences in neonatal rats. To establish the drug treatment window, we evaluated the effectiveness of simvastatin administered at different intervals before and after stroke. Furthermore, we determined whether simvastatin affected endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or inflammatory cytokines in brain tissue or cholesterol levels in serum. Methods-On postnatal day 7, male rats were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The experiment included sham-operated controls and HI animals receiving daily saline or activated simvastatin (20 mg/kg) injections from postnatal day 1 to day 7 (HI-simvastatin 1-7 group), from postnatal day 4 to day 11 (HI-simvastatin 4-11 group), or from postnatal day 7 to day 14 (HI-simvastatin 7-14 group). The neuroprotective effect of simvastatin was evaluated at adulthood by means of behavioral and histological analyses. Cytokines and eNOS expression were assessed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Results-Animals in both the HI-simvastatin 1-7 and HI-simvastatin 4-11 groups performed better than HI rats in either the T-maze or the circular water maze and showed significantly attenuated brain damage. Expression of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA in cortex was significantly increased in HI but not in HI-simvastatin 1-7 animals. In the same brain area, simvastatin treatment did not affect the increase of eNOS expression observed after HI. Conclusions-These findings indicate that prophylactic but not delayed administration of simvastatin improves functional outcome in neonatal rat stroke. The reduced induction of cytokines suggests that the neuroprotective effect of simvastatin may be related to a dampening of the inflammatory response.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2504180
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