Macrophages are an important defense against in vivo herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection by early cytokine secretion; however, they can be infected by HSV-1 and they may be compromised in their ability to produce cytokines. In this paper, we studied the expression of two Th1 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-27, upon HSV-1 infection of human macrophages, and how it is regulated by treatment with two antiviral drugs exerting their anti-HSV-1 activity through different mechanisms of action. We found that infection does not alter intra-macrophage thiol content, while it induces mRNA expression of IL-12 p35 and IL-12 p40 as well as of IL-27 p28 and IL-27 EBI3, as revealed by RT-PCR. The increased expression of mRNA is accompanied by increased production of IL-12 p40 and IL-27 p28 protein, as detected in the culture supernatants by ELISA. The two antiviral drugs tested were acyclovir (ACV), commonly used to treat herpes virus infections, and an N-butanoyl glutathione (GSH) derivative, GSHC4. While ACV inhibits viral DNA polymerase, GSH-C4 inhibits virus replication by interfering with protein folding and maturation of viral particles. Indeed, GSH-C4, altering the intracellular redox state, may modulate the Th1/Th2 balance favoring Th1-type response. Our data show that both drugs inhibit HSV-1 replication in macrophages, without significantly affecting cytokine mRNA levels. Nonetheless, lower levels of IL-12 p40 and IL-27 p28 proteins were found in the supernatants of macrophages treated with either GSH-C4 or ACV, likely as an indirect consequence of inhibited HSV-1 replication.

Effect of the N‑butanoyl glutathione (GSH) derivative and acyclovir on HSV‑1 replication and Th1 cytokine expression in human macrophages

FRATERNALE, ALESSANDRA;SCHIAVANO, GIUDITTA FIORELLA;PALMA, LINDA;MAGNANI, MAURO;BRANDI, GIORGIO
2014-01-01

Abstract

Macrophages are an important defense against in vivo herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection by early cytokine secretion; however, they can be infected by HSV-1 and they may be compromised in their ability to produce cytokines. In this paper, we studied the expression of two Th1 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-27, upon HSV-1 infection of human macrophages, and how it is regulated by treatment with two antiviral drugs exerting their anti-HSV-1 activity through different mechanisms of action. We found that infection does not alter intra-macrophage thiol content, while it induces mRNA expression of IL-12 p35 and IL-12 p40 as well as of IL-27 p28 and IL-27 EBI3, as revealed by RT-PCR. The increased expression of mRNA is accompanied by increased production of IL-12 p40 and IL-27 p28 protein, as detected in the culture supernatants by ELISA. The two antiviral drugs tested were acyclovir (ACV), commonly used to treat herpes virus infections, and an N-butanoyl glutathione (GSH) derivative, GSHC4. While ACV inhibits viral DNA polymerase, GSH-C4 inhibits virus replication by interfering with protein folding and maturation of viral particles. Indeed, GSH-C4, altering the intracellular redox state, may modulate the Th1/Th2 balance favoring Th1-type response. Our data show that both drugs inhibit HSV-1 replication in macrophages, without significantly affecting cytokine mRNA levels. Nonetheless, lower levels of IL-12 p40 and IL-27 p28 proteins were found in the supernatants of macrophages treated with either GSH-C4 or ACV, likely as an indirect consequence of inhibited HSV-1 replication.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2599980
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