HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a common cognitive impairment in AIDS that affects 15 to 50% of adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Excessive amounts of nitric oxide (NO), as produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) upon exposure of activated microglia and astrocytes to cytokines and/or viral proteins (e.g., HIV tat and gp120), are assumed to contribute to neuronal abnormalities in HAND. Evidence exists supporting the notion that iNOS induction takes place after an early decline in physiological NO levels (i.e., NO released by constitutive NOS). Here, we demonstrate that HIV-1 gp120 is able to inhibit neuronal NOS through a cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) production, this response being critical for allowing activation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB and subsequent iNOS and interleukin-1β transcription in astroglial cells. In this context, AA seems to act as an upstream proinflammatory effector. In view of the pathogenic role of cPLA 2 in HAND, a deeper insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of its modulation may be helpful in finding new drugs to manage cognitive impairment in HIV-1 patients

The role of arachidonic acid in the regulation of nitric oxide synthase isoforms by HIV gp120 protein in astroglial cells

PALOMBA, LETIZIA;CANTONI, ORAZIO;
2014-01-01

Abstract

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a common cognitive impairment in AIDS that affects 15 to 50% of adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Excessive amounts of nitric oxide (NO), as produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) upon exposure of activated microglia and astrocytes to cytokines and/or viral proteins (e.g., HIV tat and gp120), are assumed to contribute to neuronal abnormalities in HAND. Evidence exists supporting the notion that iNOS induction takes place after an early decline in physiological NO levels (i.e., NO released by constitutive NOS). Here, we demonstrate that HIV-1 gp120 is able to inhibit neuronal NOS through a cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) production, this response being critical for allowing activation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB and subsequent iNOS and interleukin-1β transcription in astroglial cells. In this context, AA seems to act as an upstream proinflammatory effector. In view of the pathogenic role of cPLA 2 in HAND, a deeper insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of its modulation may be helpful in finding new drugs to manage cognitive impairment in HIV-1 patients
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2607182
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