Inositol lipid-derived second messengers have long been known to have an important regulatory role in cell physiology. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) synthesizes the second messenger 3,4,5'-phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (Ptdlns 3,4,5P3) which controls a multitude of cell functions. Down-stream of PI3K/PtdIns 3,4,5P3 is the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B, PKB). Since the PI3K/ PtdIns 3,4,5P3 /Akt pathway stimulates cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis, it has been implicated in carcinogenesis. The lipid phosphatase PTEN is a negative regulator of this signaling network. Until recently, it was thought that this signal transduction cascade would promote its anti-apoptotic effects when activated in the cytoplasm. Several lines of evidence gathered over the past 20 years, have highlighted the existence of an autonomous nuclear inositol lipid cycle, strongly suggesting that lipids are important components of signaling pathways operating at the nuclear level. PI3K, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, Akt, and PTEN have been identified within the nucleus and recent findings suggest that they are involved in cell survival also by operating in this organelle, through a block of caspase-activated DNase and inhibition of chromatin condensation. Here, we shall summarize the most updated and intriguing findings about nuclear PI3K/ PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/Akt/PTEN in relationship with carcinogenesis and suppression of apoptosis.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.