Swimmers during training in enclosed swimming pools, undergo considerable inhalation of chlorine gas, released from the chlorinated water in the breathing zone. Results reported in the literature suggest that chlorine concentration can increase near to the thresold limited value, when more than 6 swimmers are contemporary present into the water. The inhaled chlorine gas is transformed in the biological fluids into hypochlorous acid that is a strong oxidizing agent of the intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH). The erythrocytes, depleted of GSH are highly vulnerable to oxidant stress induced by oxygen radicals or other oxidizing agents. Normal erythrocytes restore rapidly the steady state GSH level by means of the NADPH produced by the hexosemonophosphate shunt enzymes, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), deficient erythrocytes regenerate GSH at slower rate thus increasing the time of exposure to the oxidizing agents. The G6PD deficiency is thus a clinical syndrome that limits the permanence of swimmers, bearing this defect, in enclosed swimming pools.

Oxidizing effects of chlorine on normal and favic swimmers [Effetto ossidante del cloro su nuotatori normali e favici]

Benelli, Piero;Ninfali, Paolino
1997-01-01

Abstract

Swimmers during training in enclosed swimming pools, undergo considerable inhalation of chlorine gas, released from the chlorinated water in the breathing zone. Results reported in the literature suggest that chlorine concentration can increase near to the thresold limited value, when more than 6 swimmers are contemporary present into the water. The inhaled chlorine gas is transformed in the biological fluids into hypochlorous acid that is a strong oxidizing agent of the intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH). The erythrocytes, depleted of GSH are highly vulnerable to oxidant stress induced by oxygen radicals or other oxidizing agents. Normal erythrocytes restore rapidly the steady state GSH level by means of the NADPH produced by the hexosemonophosphate shunt enzymes, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), deficient erythrocytes regenerate GSH at slower rate thus increasing the time of exposure to the oxidizing agents. The G6PD deficiency is thus a clinical syndrome that limits the permanence of swimmers, bearing this defect, in enclosed swimming pools.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2657967
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