Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by many Leishmania species, which can infect both humans and other mammals. Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with heterogeneous clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infections to lesions at cutaneous sites (cutaneous leishmaniasis), mucosal sites (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis) or in visceral organs (visceral leishmaniasis), depending on the species and host characteristics. Often, symptoms are inconclusive and leishmaniasis can be confused with other co-endemic diseases. Moreover, co-infections (mainly with HIV in humans) can produce atypical clinical presentations. A correct diagnosis is crucial to apply the appropriate treatment and the use of molecular techniques in diagnosis of leishmaniasis has become increasingly relevant due to their remarkable sensitivity, specificity and possible application to a variety of clinical samples. Among them, real-time PCR (qPCR)-based approaches have become increasingly popular in the last years not only for detection and quantification of Leishmania species but also for species identification. However, despite qPCR-based methods having proven to be very effective in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis, a standardized method does not exist. This review summarizes the qPCR-based methods in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis focusing on the recent developments and applications in this field.

Real-time PCR applications for diagnosis of leishmaniasis

Galluzzi, Luca
;
Ceccarelli, Marcello;Diotallevi, Aurora;Menotta, Michele;Magnani, Mauro
2018

Abstract

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by many Leishmania species, which can infect both humans and other mammals. Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with heterogeneous clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infections to lesions at cutaneous sites (cutaneous leishmaniasis), mucosal sites (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis) or in visceral organs (visceral leishmaniasis), depending on the species and host characteristics. Often, symptoms are inconclusive and leishmaniasis can be confused with other co-endemic diseases. Moreover, co-infections (mainly with HIV in humans) can produce atypical clinical presentations. A correct diagnosis is crucial to apply the appropriate treatment and the use of molecular techniques in diagnosis of leishmaniasis has become increasingly relevant due to their remarkable sensitivity, specificity and possible application to a variety of clinical samples. Among them, real-time PCR (qPCR)-based approaches have become increasingly popular in the last years not only for detection and quantification of Leishmania species but also for species identification. However, despite qPCR-based methods having proven to be very effective in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis, a standardized method does not exist. This review summarizes the qPCR-based methods in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis focusing on the recent developments and applications in this field.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11576/2660304
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