To compare the kinetics of integration, p24 production and equilibrium of the different HIV-DNA forms in human primary cells in the presence/absence of integrase-inhibitors (INIs) in vitro. Monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDMs), CD4+ T-cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were infected with HIV-1 in the presence/absence of raltegravir and dolutegravir. HIV-DNA levels and p24 production were measured by qPCR and ELISA assays, respectively. In the absence of INIs, levels of HIV-DNA forms were initially very low, with an increase in the integration process starting at 3 dpi. HIV-DNA increased more slowly in MDMs than it did in CD4+ T-cells and PMBCs peaking at 21 dpi with a mean of 1580 (±890) and 615 (±37) copies/10^3 cells for proviral and unintegrated HIV-DNA, and 455,972 (±213,255) pg/mL of p24 at the same time point. In CD4+ T-cells the proviral HIV-DNA increased together with unintegrated HIV-DNA peaking at 7 dpi (583 ± 261 and 338 ± 254 copies/10^3 cells) when the p24 was 218,000 (±75,600) pg/mL. A similar trend was observed in PBMCs (494 ± 361 and 350 ± 123 copies/10^3 cells for proviral and unintegrated HIV-DNA, and p24 production of 149,400 ± 131,800 pg/mL). Both INIs inhibited viral replication and integration in all the cell types that were tested, especially starting at 3 dpi. However, a small but measurable amount of HIV-DNA (<5 copies/10^3 cells) was still observed in treated-MDMs up to 30 dpi. In conclusion, our study showed differences in HIV-DNA kinetic integration between CD4+ T-cells and MDMs, which could explain the divergent kinetics of viral-replication. Both INIs inhibited HIV-1 integration and replication with no difference found between CD4+ T-cells and MDMs. However, residual HIV-DNA remained detectable up to 30 dpi in INI-treated MDMs although complete inhibition of HIV replication was achieved. The clinical significance of this minor DNA persistence deserves further investigation considering the role of macrophages as reservoirs.

Different kinetics of viral replication and DNA integration in the main HIV-1 cellular reservoirs in the presence and absence of integrase inhibitors

Orlandi, Chiara;Magnani, Mauro;Casabianca, Anna;
2018

Abstract

To compare the kinetics of integration, p24 production and equilibrium of the different HIV-DNA forms in human primary cells in the presence/absence of integrase-inhibitors (INIs) in vitro. Monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDMs), CD4+ T-cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were infected with HIV-1 in the presence/absence of raltegravir and dolutegravir. HIV-DNA levels and p24 production were measured by qPCR and ELISA assays, respectively. In the absence of INIs, levels of HIV-DNA forms were initially very low, with an increase in the integration process starting at 3 dpi. HIV-DNA increased more slowly in MDMs than it did in CD4+ T-cells and PMBCs peaking at 21 dpi with a mean of 1580 (±890) and 615 (±37) copies/10^3 cells for proviral and unintegrated HIV-DNA, and 455,972 (±213,255) pg/mL of p24 at the same time point. In CD4+ T-cells the proviral HIV-DNA increased together with unintegrated HIV-DNA peaking at 7 dpi (583 ± 261 and 338 ± 254 copies/10^3 cells) when the p24 was 218,000 (±75,600) pg/mL. A similar trend was observed in PBMCs (494 ± 361 and 350 ± 123 copies/10^3 cells for proviral and unintegrated HIV-DNA, and p24 production of 149,400 ± 131,800 pg/mL). Both INIs inhibited viral replication and integration in all the cell types that were tested, especially starting at 3 dpi. However, a small but measurable amount of HIV-DNA (<5 copies/10^3 cells) was still observed in treated-MDMs up to 30 dpi. In conclusion, our study showed differences in HIV-DNA kinetic integration between CD4+ T-cells and MDMs, which could explain the divergent kinetics of viral-replication. Both INIs inhibited HIV-1 integration and replication with no difference found between CD4+ T-cells and MDMs. However, residual HIV-DNA remained detectable up to 30 dpi in INI-treated MDMs although complete inhibition of HIV replication was achieved. The clinical significance of this minor DNA persistence deserves further investigation considering the role of macrophages as reservoirs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2662959
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