The antimicrobial activity of the marine bisindole alkaloid 2,2-bis(6-bromo-3-indolyl) ethylamine (1) and related synthetic analogues (compounds 2–8) against target microorganisms was investigated by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination. Compound 1 showed the greatest antimicrobial activity with the lowest MIC (8 mg/L) against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, while the derivatives exhibited higher MICs values (from 16 to 128 mg/L). Compounds 1, 3, 4, and 8, the most active ones, were then tested against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, and Candida albicans during biofilms formation as well as on 24 h developed biofilms. The natural alkaloid 1 inhibited the biofilm formation of all the tested microorganisms up to 82.2% and disaggregated biofilms of E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, and C. albicans after 30 min of contact, as assessed by viable plate count and crystal violet (CV) staining (optical density at 570 nm). Synthetic derivatives 3, 4, and 8 displayed anti-biofilm activity toward individual bacterial populations. This study highlights the potential of marine bisindole alkaloid 1 as anti-biofilm agent and shows, through a preliminary structure activity relationship (SAR), the importance of halogens and ethylamine side chain for the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of this bisindole series.

Marine Alkaloid 2,2-Bis(6-bromo-3-indolyl) Ethylamine and Its Synthetic Derivatives Inhibit Microbial Biofilms Formation and Disaggregate Developed Biofilms

Campana Raffaella
;
Gianfranco Favi;Wally Baffone;Lucarini Simone
Conceptualization
2019-01-01

Abstract

The antimicrobial activity of the marine bisindole alkaloid 2,2-bis(6-bromo-3-indolyl) ethylamine (1) and related synthetic analogues (compounds 2–8) against target microorganisms was investigated by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination. Compound 1 showed the greatest antimicrobial activity with the lowest MIC (8 mg/L) against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, while the derivatives exhibited higher MICs values (from 16 to 128 mg/L). Compounds 1, 3, 4, and 8, the most active ones, were then tested against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, and Candida albicans during biofilms formation as well as on 24 h developed biofilms. The natural alkaloid 1 inhibited the biofilm formation of all the tested microorganisms up to 82.2% and disaggregated biofilms of E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, and C. albicans after 30 min of contact, as assessed by viable plate count and crystal violet (CV) staining (optical density at 570 nm). Synthetic derivatives 3, 4, and 8 displayed anti-biofilm activity toward individual bacterial populations. This study highlights the potential of marine bisindole alkaloid 1 as anti-biofilm agent and shows, through a preliminary structure activity relationship (SAR), the importance of halogens and ethylamine side chain for the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of this bisindole series.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
2019Microorganisms.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: 2019Microorganisms_Campana et al_Marine Alkaloid 2,2-Bis(6-bromo-3-indolyl)
Tipologia: Versione editoriale
Licenza: Dominio pubblico
Dimensione 1.47 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.47 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2664230
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 19
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 19
social impact