Extra domain B of fibronectin (FN-EDB) is upregulated in the extracellular matrix during tissue remodeling and has been postulated as a potential biomarker for atherosclerosis, yet no systematic test for FN-EDB in plaques has been reported. We hypothesized that FN-EDB expression would intensify in advanced plaques. Furthermore, engineering of FN-EDB-targeted nanoparticles (NPs) could enable imaging/diagnosis and local delivery of payloads to plaques. Methods: The amount of FN-EDB in human atherosclerotic and normal arteries (ages: 40 to 85 years) was assessed by histological staining and quantification using an FN-EDB-specific aptide (APTFN-EDB). FN-EDB-specific NPs that could serve as MRI beacons were constructed by immobilizing APTFN-EDB on the NP surface containing DTPA[Gd]. MRI visualized APTFN-EDB-[Gd]NPs administered to atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice in the brachiocephalic arteries. Analysis of the ascending-to-descending thoracic aortas and the aortic roots of the mice permitted quantitation of Gd, FN-EDB, and APTFN-EDB-[Gd]NPs. Cyanine, a model small molecule drug, was used to study the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of APTFN-EDB-NPs to evaluate their utility for drug delivery. Results: Atherosclerotic tissues had significantly greater FN-EDB-positive areas than normal arteries (P < 0.001). This signal pertained particularly to Type III (P < 0.01), IV (P < 0.01), and V lesions (P < 0.001) rather than Type I and II lesions (AHA classification). FN-EDB expression was positively correlated with macrophage accumulation and neoangiogenesis. Quantitative analysis of T1-weighted images of atherosclerotic mice revealed substantial APTFN-EDB-[Gd]NPs accumulation in plaques compared to control NPs, conventional MRI contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) or accumulation in wild-type C57BL/6J mice. Additionally, the APTFN-EDB-NPs significantly prolonged the blood-circulation time (t1/2: ~ 6 h) of a model drug and increased its accumulation in plaques (6.9-fold higher accumulation vs. free drug). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate augmented FN-EDB expression in Type III, IV, and V atheromata and that APTFN-EDB-NPs could serve as a platform for identifying and/or delivering agents locally to a subset of atherosclerotic plaques.

Nanoparticles targeting extra domain B of fibronectin-specific to the atherosclerotic lesion types III, IV, and V-enhance plaque detection and cargo delivery

Molinaro, Roberto
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2018-01-01

Abstract

Extra domain B of fibronectin (FN-EDB) is upregulated in the extracellular matrix during tissue remodeling and has been postulated as a potential biomarker for atherosclerosis, yet no systematic test for FN-EDB in plaques has been reported. We hypothesized that FN-EDB expression would intensify in advanced plaques. Furthermore, engineering of FN-EDB-targeted nanoparticles (NPs) could enable imaging/diagnosis and local delivery of payloads to plaques. Methods: The amount of FN-EDB in human atherosclerotic and normal arteries (ages: 40 to 85 years) was assessed by histological staining and quantification using an FN-EDB-specific aptide (APTFN-EDB). FN-EDB-specific NPs that could serve as MRI beacons were constructed by immobilizing APTFN-EDB on the NP surface containing DTPA[Gd]. MRI visualized APTFN-EDB-[Gd]NPs administered to atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice in the brachiocephalic arteries. Analysis of the ascending-to-descending thoracic aortas and the aortic roots of the mice permitted quantitation of Gd, FN-EDB, and APTFN-EDB-[Gd]NPs. Cyanine, a model small molecule drug, was used to study the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of APTFN-EDB-NPs to evaluate their utility for drug delivery. Results: Atherosclerotic tissues had significantly greater FN-EDB-positive areas than normal arteries (P < 0.001). This signal pertained particularly to Type III (P < 0.01), IV (P < 0.01), and V lesions (P < 0.001) rather than Type I and II lesions (AHA classification). FN-EDB expression was positively correlated with macrophage accumulation and neoangiogenesis. Quantitative analysis of T1-weighted images of atherosclerotic mice revealed substantial APTFN-EDB-[Gd]NPs accumulation in plaques compared to control NPs, conventional MRI contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) or accumulation in wild-type C57BL/6J mice. Additionally, the APTFN-EDB-NPs significantly prolonged the blood-circulation time (t1/2: ~ 6 h) of a model drug and increased its accumulation in plaques (6.9-fold higher accumulation vs. free drug). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate augmented FN-EDB expression in Type III, IV, and V atheromata and that APTFN-EDB-NPs could serve as a platform for identifying and/or delivering agents locally to a subset of atherosclerotic plaques.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2667011
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 14
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact