Oxidative stress has been shown to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of the neurodegenerative disease Ataxia Telangiectasia. We have recently demonstrated that Dexamethasone treatment is able to counteract the oxidative state by promoting nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) nuclear accumulation. However, substantial gaps remain in our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanism(s) according to which Dexamethasone acts as an NRF2 inducer. Herein we investigate the possible effects of the drug on the main NRF2 activation pathways by initially focusing on key kinases known to differently affect NRF2 activation. Neither AKT nor ERK1/2, known to be NRF2-activating kinases, were found to be activated upon Dexamethasone treatment, thus excluding their involvement in the transcription factor nuclear shift. Likewise, GSK3 inactivating kinase was not inhibited, thus ruling out its role in NRF2 activation. On the other hand, p38 MAPK, another NRF2-inhibitory kinase, was indeed switched-off in Ataxia Telangiectasia cells by Dexamethasone-mediated induction of DUSP1 phosphatase, and therefore it appeared that it might account for NRF2 triggering. However, this mechanism was excluded by the use of a selective p38 inhibitor, which failed to cause a significant NRF2 nuclear shift and target gene induction. Finally, dexamethasone effects on the classical oxidative pathway orchestrated by KEAP1 were addressed. Dexamethasone was found to decrease the expression of the inhibitor KEAP1 at both mRNA and protein levels and to induce the shift from the reduced to the oxidized form of KEAP1, thus favouring NRF2 translocation into the nucleus. Furthermore, preliminary data revealed very low levels of the negative regulator Fyn in Ataxia Telangiectasia cells, which might account for the prolonged NRF2-activated gene expression.

Activation of NRF2 by dexamethasone in ataxia telangiectasia cells involves KEAP1 inhibition but not the inhibition of p38

Biagiotti, Sara
;
Bianchi, Marzia;Rossi, Luigia;Magnani, Mauro
2019-01-01

Abstract

Oxidative stress has been shown to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of the neurodegenerative disease Ataxia Telangiectasia. We have recently demonstrated that Dexamethasone treatment is able to counteract the oxidative state by promoting nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) nuclear accumulation. However, substantial gaps remain in our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanism(s) according to which Dexamethasone acts as an NRF2 inducer. Herein we investigate the possible effects of the drug on the main NRF2 activation pathways by initially focusing on key kinases known to differently affect NRF2 activation. Neither AKT nor ERK1/2, known to be NRF2-activating kinases, were found to be activated upon Dexamethasone treatment, thus excluding their involvement in the transcription factor nuclear shift. Likewise, GSK3 inactivating kinase was not inhibited, thus ruling out its role in NRF2 activation. On the other hand, p38 MAPK, another NRF2-inhibitory kinase, was indeed switched-off in Ataxia Telangiectasia cells by Dexamethasone-mediated induction of DUSP1 phosphatase, and therefore it appeared that it might account for NRF2 triggering. However, this mechanism was excluded by the use of a selective p38 inhibitor, which failed to cause a significant NRF2 nuclear shift and target gene induction. Finally, dexamethasone effects on the classical oxidative pathway orchestrated by KEAP1 were addressed. Dexamethasone was found to decrease the expression of the inhibitor KEAP1 at both mRNA and protein levels and to induce the shift from the reduced to the oxidized form of KEAP1, thus favouring NRF2 translocation into the nucleus. Furthermore, preliminary data revealed very low levels of the negative regulator Fyn in Ataxia Telangiectasia cells, which might account for the prolonged NRF2-activated gene expression.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2668270
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