Despite early treatment with antimycobacterial combination therapy, drug resistance continues to emerge. Maintenance of redox homeostasis is essential for Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) survival and growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of two pro-glutathione (pro-GSH) drugs that are able to induce redox stress in M. avium and to modulate cytokine production by macrophages. Hence, we investigated two molecules shown to possess antiviral and immunomodulatory properties: C4-GSH, an N-butanoyl GSH derivative; and I-152, a prodrug of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and β-mercaptoethylamine (MEA). Both molecules showed activity against replicating M. avium, both in the cell-free model and inside macrophages. Moreover, they were even more effective in reducing the viability of bacteria that had been kept in water for 7 days, proving to be active both against replicating and non-replicating bacteria. By regulating the macrophage redox state, I-152 modulated cytokine production. In particular, higher levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-18 and IL-12, which are known to be crucial for the control of intracellular pathogens, were found after I-152 treatment. Our results show that C4-GSH and I-152, by inducing perturbation of redox equilibrium, exert bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against M. avium. Moreover, I-152 can boost the host response by inducing the production of cytokines that serve as key regulators of the Th1 response.

Redox homeostasis as a target for new antimycobacterial agents

Fraternale, Alessandra
;
Zara, Carolina;Pierigè, Francesca;Rossi, Luigia;Ligi, Daniela;Amagliani, Giulia;Mannello, Ferdinando;Magnani, Mauro;Brandi, Giorgio;Schiavano, Giuditta Fiorella
2020-01-01

Abstract

Despite early treatment with antimycobacterial combination therapy, drug resistance continues to emerge. Maintenance of redox homeostasis is essential for Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) survival and growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of two pro-glutathione (pro-GSH) drugs that are able to induce redox stress in M. avium and to modulate cytokine production by macrophages. Hence, we investigated two molecules shown to possess antiviral and immunomodulatory properties: C4-GSH, an N-butanoyl GSH derivative; and I-152, a prodrug of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and β-mercaptoethylamine (MEA). Both molecules showed activity against replicating M. avium, both in the cell-free model and inside macrophages. Moreover, they were even more effective in reducing the viability of bacteria that had been kept in water for 7 days, proving to be active both against replicating and non-replicating bacteria. By regulating the macrophage redox state, I-152 modulated cytokine production. In particular, higher levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-18 and IL-12, which are known to be crucial for the control of intracellular pathogens, were found after I-152 treatment. Our results show that C4-GSH and I-152, by inducing perturbation of redox equilibrium, exert bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against M. avium. Moreover, I-152 can boost the host response by inducing the production of cytokines that serve as key regulators of the Th1 response.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2678900
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