: Cancer cells accumulate epigenomic aberrations that contribute to cancer initiation and progression by altering both the genomic stability and the expression of genes. The awareness of such alterations could improve our understanding of cancer dynamics and the identification of new therapeutic strategies and biomarkers to refine tumor classification and treatment. Formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE) is the gold standard to preserve both tissue integrity and organization, and, in the last decades, a huge number of biological samples have been archived all over the world following this procedure. Recently, new chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) techniques have been developed to allow the analysis of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and transcription factor (TF) distribution in FFPE tissues. The application of ChIP to genome-wide chromatin studies using real archival samples represents an unprecedented opportunity to conduct retrospective clinical studies thanks to the possibility of accessing large cohorts of samples and their associated diagnostic records. However, although recent attempts to standardize have been made, fixation and storage conditions of clinical specimens are still extremely variable and can affect the success of chromatin studies. The procedures introduced in the last few years dealt with this problem proponing successful strategies to obtain high-resolution ChIP profiles from FFPE archival samples. In this review, we compare the different FFPE-ChIP techniques, highlighting their strengths, limitations, common features, and peculiarities, as well as pitfalls and caveats related to ChIP studies in FFPE samples, in order to facilitate their application.

The Current State of Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) from FFPE Tissues

Amatori, Stefano
;
Fanelli, Mirco
2022-01-01

Abstract

: Cancer cells accumulate epigenomic aberrations that contribute to cancer initiation and progression by altering both the genomic stability and the expression of genes. The awareness of such alterations could improve our understanding of cancer dynamics and the identification of new therapeutic strategies and biomarkers to refine tumor classification and treatment. Formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE) is the gold standard to preserve both tissue integrity and organization, and, in the last decades, a huge number of biological samples have been archived all over the world following this procedure. Recently, new chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) techniques have been developed to allow the analysis of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and transcription factor (TF) distribution in FFPE tissues. The application of ChIP to genome-wide chromatin studies using real archival samples represents an unprecedented opportunity to conduct retrospective clinical studies thanks to the possibility of accessing large cohorts of samples and their associated diagnostic records. However, although recent attempts to standardize have been made, fixation and storage conditions of clinical specimens are still extremely variable and can affect the success of chromatin studies. The procedures introduced in the last few years dealt with this problem proponing successful strategies to obtain high-resolution ChIP profiles from FFPE archival samples. In this review, we compare the different FFPE-ChIP techniques, highlighting their strengths, limitations, common features, and peculiarities, as well as pitfalls and caveats related to ChIP studies in FFPE samples, in order to facilitate their application.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2695497
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