The mammalian immune system is tolerized to trillions of microbes residing on bodily surfaces and can discriminate between symbionts and pathogens despite their having related microbial structures. Mechanisms of innate immune activation and the subsequent signaling pathways used by symbionts to communicate with the adaptive immune system are poorly understood. Polysaccharide A (PSA) of Bacteroides fragilis is the model symbiotic immunomodulatory molecule. Here we demonstrate that PSA-dependent immunomodulation requires the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/1 heterodimer in cooperation with Dectin-1 to initiate signaling by the downstream phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, with consequent CREB-dependent transcription of antiinflammatory genes, including antigen presentation and cosignaling molecules. High-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis of PSA identified a previously unknown small molecular-weight, covalently attached bacterial outer membrane-associated lipid that is required for activation of antigen-presenting cells. This archetypical commensal microbial molecule initiates a complex collaborative integration of Toll-like receptor and C-type lectin-like receptor signaling mechanisms culminating in the activation of the antiinflammatory arm of the PI3K pathway that serves to educate CD4+ Tregs to produce the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10. Immunomodulation is a key function of the microbiome and is a focal point for developing new therapeutic agents.

Symbionts exploit complex signaling to educate the immune system

Stefanetti, Giuseppe;
2019-01-01

Abstract

The mammalian immune system is tolerized to trillions of microbes residing on bodily surfaces and can discriminate between symbionts and pathogens despite their having related microbial structures. Mechanisms of innate immune activation and the subsequent signaling pathways used by symbionts to communicate with the adaptive immune system are poorly understood. Polysaccharide A (PSA) of Bacteroides fragilis is the model symbiotic immunomodulatory molecule. Here we demonstrate that PSA-dependent immunomodulation requires the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/1 heterodimer in cooperation with Dectin-1 to initiate signaling by the downstream phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, with consequent CREB-dependent transcription of antiinflammatory genes, including antigen presentation and cosignaling molecules. High-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis of PSA identified a previously unknown small molecular-weight, covalently attached bacterial outer membrane-associated lipid that is required for activation of antigen-presenting cells. This archetypical commensal microbial molecule initiates a complex collaborative integration of Toll-like receptor and C-type lectin-like receptor signaling mechanisms culminating in the activation of the antiinflammatory arm of the PI3K pathway that serves to educate CD4+ Tregs to produce the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10. Immunomodulation is a key function of the microbiome and is a focal point for developing new therapeutic agents.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2697157
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