Background and purpose: Devising novel strategies to therapeutically favour inflammation resolution and provide neuroprotection is an unmet clinical need. Enhancing endocannabinoid tone by inhibiting the catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), or stimulating melatonin receptors has therapeutic potential to treat neuropathological states in which neuroinflammation plays a central role. Experimental approach: A rodent hippocampal explant model of inflammatory injury was used to assess the effects of UCM1341, a dual-acting compound with FAAH inhibitory action and agonist activity at melatonin receptors, against neuroinflammatory damage. FAAH activity was measured by a radiometric assay, and N-acylethanolamine levels were assessed by HPLC-MS/MS methods. FAAH distribution, evolution of inflammation and the contribution of UCM1341 to the expression of proteins controlling macrophage behaviour were investigated by biochemical and confocal analyses. Key results: UCM1341 exhibited greater neuroprotection against neuroinflammatory degeneration, compared with the reference compounds URB597 (FAAH inhibitor) and melatonin. During neuroinflammation, UCM1341 augmented the levels of anandamide and N-oleoylethanolamine, but not N-palmitoylethanolamine, up-regulated PPAR-α levels, attenuated demyelination and prevented the release of TNF-α. UCM1341 modulated inflammatory responses by contributing to microglia/macrophage polarization, stimulating formation of lipid-laden macrophages and regulating expression of proteins controlling cholesterol metabolism and efflux. The neuroprotective effects of UCM1341 were prevented by PPARα, TRPV1 and melatonin receptor antagonists. Conclusion and implications: UCM1341, by enhancing endocannabinoid and melatoninergic signalling, benefits neuroprotection and stimulates inflammation resolution pathways. Our findings provide an encouraging prospect of therapeutically targeting endocannabinoid and melatoninergic systems in inflammatory demyelinating states in the CNS.

Combined targeting of fatty acid amide hydrolase and melatonin receptors promotes neuroprotection and stimulates inflammation resolution in rats

Bedini, Annalida;
2023

Abstract

Background and purpose: Devising novel strategies to therapeutically favour inflammation resolution and provide neuroprotection is an unmet clinical need. Enhancing endocannabinoid tone by inhibiting the catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), or stimulating melatonin receptors has therapeutic potential to treat neuropathological states in which neuroinflammation plays a central role. Experimental approach: A rodent hippocampal explant model of inflammatory injury was used to assess the effects of UCM1341, a dual-acting compound with FAAH inhibitory action and agonist activity at melatonin receptors, against neuroinflammatory damage. FAAH activity was measured by a radiometric assay, and N-acylethanolamine levels were assessed by HPLC-MS/MS methods. FAAH distribution, evolution of inflammation and the contribution of UCM1341 to the expression of proteins controlling macrophage behaviour were investigated by biochemical and confocal analyses. Key results: UCM1341 exhibited greater neuroprotection against neuroinflammatory degeneration, compared with the reference compounds URB597 (FAAH inhibitor) and melatonin. During neuroinflammation, UCM1341 augmented the levels of anandamide and N-oleoylethanolamine, but not N-palmitoylethanolamine, up-regulated PPAR-α levels, attenuated demyelination and prevented the release of TNF-α. UCM1341 modulated inflammatory responses by contributing to microglia/macrophage polarization, stimulating formation of lipid-laden macrophages and regulating expression of proteins controlling cholesterol metabolism and efflux. The neuroprotective effects of UCM1341 were prevented by PPARα, TRPV1 and melatonin receptor antagonists. Conclusion and implications: UCM1341, by enhancing endocannabinoid and melatoninergic signalling, benefits neuroprotection and stimulates inflammation resolution pathways. Our findings provide an encouraging prospect of therapeutically targeting endocannabinoid and melatoninergic systems in inflammatory demyelinating states in the CNS.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2709870
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