In recent years, 3D printing has attracted great interest in the pharmaceutical field as a promising tool for the on-demand manufacturing of patient-centered pharmaceutical forms. Among the existing 3D printing techniques, direct powder extrusion (DPE) resulted as the most practical approach thanks to the possibility to directly process excipients and drugs in a single step. The main goal of this work was to determine whether different grades of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer might be employed as new feedstock materials for the DPE technique to manufacture transdermal patches. By selecting two model drugs with different thermal behavior, (i.e., ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium) we also wanted to pay attention to the versatility of EVA excipient in preparing patches for customized transdermal therapies. EVA was combined with 30% (w/w) of each model drugs. The physicochemical composition of the printed devices was investigated through Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analyses. FT-IR spectra confirmed that the starting materials were effectively incorporated into the final formulation, and thermal analyses demonstrated that the extrusion process altered the crystalline morphology of the raw polymers inducing the formation of crystals at lower thicknesses. Lastly, the drug release and permeation profile of the printed systems was evaluated for 48 hours and showed to be dependent on the VA content of the EVA grade (74.5% of ibuprofen released from EVA 4030AC matrix and 12.6% of diclofenac sodium released from EVA1821A matrix). Hence, this study demonstrated that EVA and direct powder extrusion technique could be promising tools for manufacturing transdermal patches. By selecting the EVA grade with the appropriate VA content, drugs with dissimilar melting points could be printed preserving their thermal stability. Moreover, the desired drug release and permeation profile of the drug can be achieved, representing an important advantage in terms of personalized medicine.

3D-printed EVA-based patches manufactured by direct powder extrusion for personalized transdermal therapies

Maurizii, Giorgia;Moroni, Sofia;Khorshid, Shiva;Aluigi, Annalisa;Tiboni, Mattia
;
Casettari, Luca
2023

Abstract

In recent years, 3D printing has attracted great interest in the pharmaceutical field as a promising tool for the on-demand manufacturing of patient-centered pharmaceutical forms. Among the existing 3D printing techniques, direct powder extrusion (DPE) resulted as the most practical approach thanks to the possibility to directly process excipients and drugs in a single step. The main goal of this work was to determine whether different grades of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer might be employed as new feedstock materials for the DPE technique to manufacture transdermal patches. By selecting two model drugs with different thermal behavior, (i.e., ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium) we also wanted to pay attention to the versatility of EVA excipient in preparing patches for customized transdermal therapies. EVA was combined with 30% (w/w) of each model drugs. The physicochemical composition of the printed devices was investigated through Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analyses. FT-IR spectra confirmed that the starting materials were effectively incorporated into the final formulation, and thermal analyses demonstrated that the extrusion process altered the crystalline morphology of the raw polymers inducing the formation of crystals at lower thicknesses. Lastly, the drug release and permeation profile of the printed systems was evaluated for 48 hours and showed to be dependent on the VA content of the EVA grade (74.5% of ibuprofen released from EVA 4030AC matrix and 12.6% of diclofenac sodium released from EVA1821A matrix). Hence, this study demonstrated that EVA and direct powder extrusion technique could be promising tools for manufacturing transdermal patches. By selecting the EVA grade with the appropriate VA content, drugs with dissimilar melting points could be printed preserving their thermal stability. Moreover, the desired drug release and permeation profile of the drug can be achieved, representing an important advantage in terms of personalized medicine.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2709931
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