Objectives: Extracellular histone levels are associated with the severity of many human pathologies, including sepsis and COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the role of extracellular histones on monocyte distribution width (MDW), and their effect on the release of cytokines by blood cells. Methods: Peripheral venous blood was collected from healthy subjects and treated with different doses of a histone mixture (range 0-200 μg/mL) to analyze MDW modifications up-to 3 h and digital microscopy of blood smears. Plasma obtained after 3 h of histone treatment were assayed to evaluate a panel of 24 inflammatory cytokines. Results: MDW values significantly increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These findings are associated with the histone-induced modifications of cell volume, cytoplasmic granularity, vacuolization, and nuclear structure of monocytes, promoting their heterogeneity without affecting their count. After 3 h of treatment almost all cytokines significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. The most relevant response was shown by the significantly increased G-CSF levels, and by the increase of IL-1β, IL-6, MIP-1β, and IL-8 at the histone doses of 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL. VEGF, IP-10, GM-CSF, TNF-α, Eotaxin, and IL-2 were also up-regulated, and a lower but significant increase was observed for IL-15, IL-5, IL-17, bFGF, IL-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and IL-9. Conclusions: Circulating histones critically induce functional alterations of monocytes mirrored by MDW, monocyte anisocytosis, and hyperinflammation/cytokine storm in sepsis and COVID-19. MDW and circulating histones may be useful tools to predict higher risks of worst outcomes.

Monocyte distribution width alterations and cytokine storm are modulated by circulating histones

Ligi, Daniela;Della Franca, Chiara;Mannello, Ferdinando
2023

Abstract

Objectives: Extracellular histone levels are associated with the severity of many human pathologies, including sepsis and COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the role of extracellular histones on monocyte distribution width (MDW), and their effect on the release of cytokines by blood cells. Methods: Peripheral venous blood was collected from healthy subjects and treated with different doses of a histone mixture (range 0-200 μg/mL) to analyze MDW modifications up-to 3 h and digital microscopy of blood smears. Plasma obtained after 3 h of histone treatment were assayed to evaluate a panel of 24 inflammatory cytokines. Results: MDW values significantly increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These findings are associated with the histone-induced modifications of cell volume, cytoplasmic granularity, vacuolization, and nuclear structure of monocytes, promoting their heterogeneity without affecting their count. After 3 h of treatment almost all cytokines significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. The most relevant response was shown by the significantly increased G-CSF levels, and by the increase of IL-1β, IL-6, MIP-1β, and IL-8 at the histone doses of 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL. VEGF, IP-10, GM-CSF, TNF-α, Eotaxin, and IL-2 were also up-regulated, and a lower but significant increase was observed for IL-15, IL-5, IL-17, bFGF, IL-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and IL-9. Conclusions: Circulating histones critically induce functional alterations of monocytes mirrored by MDW, monocyte anisocytosis, and hyperinflammation/cytokine storm in sepsis and COVID-19. MDW and circulating histones may be useful tools to predict higher risks of worst outcomes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2712855
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