Western boundary upwelling systems such as those found in the southeastern Brazilian margin (SBM) are promoted by special atmospheric and oceanographic interactionswith topography of the coastline. In order to investigate the evolution of the upwelling systemin SBMover the past 110 kyr, the abundance of Globigerina bulloides (a planktonic foraminiferal species typically associated with upwelling waters) from two marine cores was combined with estimates of upper water thermal structure derived from Modern Analog Technique based on planktonic foraminifera. High abundances (up to 35%) of large specimens of G. bulloides (=250 μm) associated with cooling subsurface waters reveal the occurrence of an intense coastal upwelling system between 110 kyr and 88 kyr. Changes in coastline orientation due to lower sea level stand (20-70 m lower than today) and a longer season of vigorous Brazil Current (BC) and prevailing northeasterly winds maintained permanently the cold and nutrient-rich South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) over the shelf promoting the strongest upwelling system of the Brazilian coast over the past 110 kyr. At 88 kyr, a sharp reduction of 14% in abundance of G. bulloides and a 2.6 °C warming of the water column indicates an abrupt weakening of the coastal upwelling, probably caused by a disturbance in SACW formation. During the last glaciation, longer current winter-like conditions of prevailing southwesterly winds and a weakened Brazil Current suppressed the upwelling system in SBM. At this time, constant and relatively high abundance of G. bulloides (up to 10%) suggest that the coastal upwelling was restricted to a short period of months year-round, when the BC and northeasterly winds were relatively vigorous despite the glacial context. The predominance of warm and oligotrophic Tropical Waters due to the shutdown of coastal upwelling in northern SBM was inferred for the last 20 kyr. Despite vigorous northeasterly winds and BC strength, high sea level stand during the Holocene submersed the Abrolhos Bank (AB) leading to a new coastline configuration. Presently, the interaction between the AB and the BC generated a newoceanographic feature in SBM, the Vitória Eddy,with very limited efficiency in producing a strong upwelling such as the one recorded in the past.

Variability of the upwelling system in the southeastern Brazilian margin for the last 110,000 years

FRONTALINI, FABRIZIO;
2015-01-01

Abstract

Western boundary upwelling systems such as those found in the southeastern Brazilian margin (SBM) are promoted by special atmospheric and oceanographic interactionswith topography of the coastline. In order to investigate the evolution of the upwelling systemin SBMover the past 110 kyr, the abundance of Globigerina bulloides (a planktonic foraminiferal species typically associated with upwelling waters) from two marine cores was combined with estimates of upper water thermal structure derived from Modern Analog Technique based on planktonic foraminifera. High abundances (up to 35%) of large specimens of G. bulloides (=250 μm) associated with cooling subsurface waters reveal the occurrence of an intense coastal upwelling system between 110 kyr and 88 kyr. Changes in coastline orientation due to lower sea level stand (20-70 m lower than today) and a longer season of vigorous Brazil Current (BC) and prevailing northeasterly winds maintained permanently the cold and nutrient-rich South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) over the shelf promoting the strongest upwelling system of the Brazilian coast over the past 110 kyr. At 88 kyr, a sharp reduction of 14% in abundance of G. bulloides and a 2.6 °C warming of the water column indicates an abrupt weakening of the coastal upwelling, probably caused by a disturbance in SACW formation. During the last glaciation, longer current winter-like conditions of prevailing southwesterly winds and a weakened Brazil Current suppressed the upwelling system in SBM. At this time, constant and relatively high abundance of G. bulloides (up to 10%) suggest that the coastal upwelling was restricted to a short period of months year-round, when the BC and northeasterly winds were relatively vigorous despite the glacial context. The predominance of warm and oligotrophic Tropical Waters due to the shutdown of coastal upwelling in northern SBM was inferred for the last 20 kyr. Despite vigorous northeasterly winds and BC strength, high sea level stand during the Holocene submersed the Abrolhos Bank (AB) leading to a new coastline configuration. Presently, the interaction between the AB and the BC generated a newoceanographic feature in SBM, the Vitória Eddy,with very limited efficiency in producing a strong upwelling such as the one recorded in the past.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2640316
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