Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress are common underlying events in neurodegeneration. This pathogenic "triad" characterizes the neurobiology of epilepsy, leading to seizure-induced cell death, increased susceptibility to neuronal synchronization and network alterations. Along with other maladaptive changes, these events pave the way to spontaneous recurrent seizures and progressive degeneration of the interested brain areas. In vivo models of epilepsy are available to explore such epileptogenic mechanisms, also assessing the efficacy of chemoprevention and therapy strategies at the pre-clinical level. The kainic acid model of pharmacological excitotoxicity and epileptogenesis is one of the most investigated mimicking the chronicization profile of temporal lobe epilepsy in humans. Its pathogenic cues include inflammatory and neuronal death pathway activation, mitochondrial disturbances and lipid peroxidation of several regions of the brain, the most vulnerable being the hippocampus. The importance of neuroinflammation and lipid peroxidation as underlying molecular events of brain damage was demonstrated in this model by the possibility to counteract the related maladaptive morphological and functional changes of this organ with vitamin E, the main fat-soluble cellular antioxidant and "conditional" co-factor of enzymatic pathways involved in polyunsaturated lipid metabolism and inflammatory signaling. The present review paper provides an overview of the literature supporting the potential for a timely intervention with vitamin E therapy in clinical management of seizures and epileptogenic processes associated with excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation and lipid peroxidation, i.e. the pathogenic "triad".

Excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation and oxidant stress as molecular bases of epileptogenesis and epilepsy-derived neurodegeneration: The role of vitamin E.

Ambrogini P;Albertini MC;Lattanzi D;Di Palma M;Betti M;Minelli A;Cuppini R;
2019-01-01

Abstract

Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress are common underlying events in neurodegeneration. This pathogenic "triad" characterizes the neurobiology of epilepsy, leading to seizure-induced cell death, increased susceptibility to neuronal synchronization and network alterations. Along with other maladaptive changes, these events pave the way to spontaneous recurrent seizures and progressive degeneration of the interested brain areas. In vivo models of epilepsy are available to explore such epileptogenic mechanisms, also assessing the efficacy of chemoprevention and therapy strategies at the pre-clinical level. The kainic acid model of pharmacological excitotoxicity and epileptogenesis is one of the most investigated mimicking the chronicization profile of temporal lobe epilepsy in humans. Its pathogenic cues include inflammatory and neuronal death pathway activation, mitochondrial disturbances and lipid peroxidation of several regions of the brain, the most vulnerable being the hippocampus. The importance of neuroinflammation and lipid peroxidation as underlying molecular events of brain damage was demonstrated in this model by the possibility to counteract the related maladaptive morphological and functional changes of this organ with vitamin E, the main fat-soluble cellular antioxidant and "conditional" co-factor of enzymatic pathways involved in polyunsaturated lipid metabolism and inflammatory signaling. The present review paper provides an overview of the literature supporting the potential for a timely intervention with vitamin E therapy in clinical management of seizures and epileptogenic processes associated with excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation and lipid peroxidation, i.e. the pathogenic "triad".
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11576/2665149
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