Glutathione (GSH) has poor pharmacokinetic properties; thus, several derivatives and biosynthetic precursors have been proposed as GSH-boosting drugs. I-152 is a conjugate of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and S-acetyl-β-mercaptoethylamine (SMEA) designed to release the parent drugs (i.e., NAC and β-mercaptoethylamine or cysteamine, MEA). NAC is a precursor of L-cysteine, while MEA is an aminothiol able to increase GSH content; thus, I-152 represents the very first attempt to combine two pro-GSH molecules. In this review, the in-vitro and in-vivo metabolism, pro-GSH activity and antiviral and immunomodulatory properties of I-152 are discussed. Under physiological GSH conditions, low I-152 doses increase cellular GSH content; by contrast, high doses cause GSH depletion but yield a high content of NAC, MEA and I-152, which can be used to resynthesize GSH. Preliminary in-vivo studies suggest that the molecule reaches mouse organs, including the brain, where its metabolites, NAC and MEA, are detected. In cell cultures, I-152 replenishes experimentally depleted GSH levels. Moreover, administration of I-152 to C57BL/6 mice infected with the retroviral complex LP-BM5 is effective in contrasting virus-induced GSH depletion, exerting at the same time antiviral and immunomodulatory functions. I-152 acts as a pro-GSH agent; however, GSH derivatives and NAC cannot completely replicate its effects. The co-delivery of different thiol species may lead to unpredictable outcomes, which warrant further investigation.

Boosting GSH Using the Co-Drug Approach: I-152, a Conjugate of N-acetyl-cysteine and β-mercaptoethylamine

Crinelli, Rita;Zara, Carolina;Retini, Michele;Magnani, Mauro;Fraternale, Alessandra
2019

Abstract

Glutathione (GSH) has poor pharmacokinetic properties; thus, several derivatives and biosynthetic precursors have been proposed as GSH-boosting drugs. I-152 is a conjugate of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and S-acetyl-β-mercaptoethylamine (SMEA) designed to release the parent drugs (i.e., NAC and β-mercaptoethylamine or cysteamine, MEA). NAC is a precursor of L-cysteine, while MEA is an aminothiol able to increase GSH content; thus, I-152 represents the very first attempt to combine two pro-GSH molecules. In this review, the in-vitro and in-vivo metabolism, pro-GSH activity and antiviral and immunomodulatory properties of I-152 are discussed. Under physiological GSH conditions, low I-152 doses increase cellular GSH content; by contrast, high doses cause GSH depletion but yield a high content of NAC, MEA and I-152, which can be used to resynthesize GSH. Preliminary in-vivo studies suggest that the molecule reaches mouse organs, including the brain, where its metabolites, NAC and MEA, are detected. In cell cultures, I-152 replenishes experimentally depleted GSH levels. Moreover, administration of I-152 to C57BL/6 mice infected with the retroviral complex LP-BM5 is effective in contrasting virus-induced GSH depletion, exerting at the same time antiviral and immunomodulatory functions. I-152 acts as a pro-GSH agent; however, GSH derivatives and NAC cannot completely replicate its effects. The co-delivery of different thiol species may lead to unpredictable outcomes, which warrant further investigation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11576/2668365
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